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Blue Economy 101: A Beginner’s Guide

Updated: Mar 23, 2023



Indonesia Map. Blue Economy Indonesia, Blue economy beginner guide. CarbonEthics Indonesia












It is without a doubt that our country, Indonesia, is blessed with a remarkably rich marine biodiversity and natural resources due to the archipelago’s geographical location between the Indian Ocean and The Pacific Ocean. We also know that the blue seas of Indonesia are beautiful sights to see, but there is absolutely more to them than meets the eye.


Indonesia coastal ecosystem. Blue Economy Indonesia, Blue economy beginner guide. CarbonEthics Indonesia

The ocean is not just a large area of salty water you go to see on vacation or a place where the seafood you eat comes from. It is a vital element of our planet which produces the oxygen we breathe and provides us with many important resources for our global economy.


The United Nations has predicted that the world’s human population may increase to 9.7 billion people in the next 30 years (in 2050). More people means a bigger consumption of food and energy sourced from the oceans. In the year 2025 alone, FAO predicts that annual fish consumption will be around 20% higher than today.


illegal fishing and violation of state border rights is sentenced to ship confiscation and sunk by the Indonesian government. Blue Economy Indonesia, Blue economy beginner guide. CarbonEthics Indonesia

More challenges in the marine sector come from fishing violations, like illegal catching, overfishing, fossil fuel mining, and ocean pollutions from plastic and toxic chemical waste. These are all threatening to the well-being of the oceans as well as the coastal and marine biodiversity.

According to the World Bank, nearly 90% of the world’s marine fish stocks are now fully exploited. If this continues, it is possible that there will be more plastic in the oceans than there are fish in the future. What’s left for the next generations?

To make sure we can still have enough marine resources for the growing human population, every country in the world needs to follow the concept of Sustainable Blue Economy. The blue economy is a sustainable marine economic development model that complies with SDG 14. Its concept involves many activities, from fisheries, marine tourism, maritime transportation, to waste management and renewable energy. The goals are to develop a resilient social economy, protect blue carbon and wildlife, also fight climate change.

SDGs 14 Life Below Water. Blue Economy Indonesia, Blue economy beginner guide. CarbonEthics Indonesia

Blue Economy for Food Security

Indonesian seas economic potential for food security. Blue Economy Indonesia, Blue economy beginner guide. CarbonEthics Indonesia


The economic potential of the Indonesian seas is one of the highest in the world, valued up to IDR 19,58 trillion per year coming from various sectors, such as offshore fishery, aquaculture, fish processing, and biotech industries.


Fish for 60% animal protein consumption in Indonesia. Blue Economy Indonesia, Blue economy beginner guide. CarbonEthics Indonesia

Based on the reporting by Wantimpres.go.id in 2017, around 60% of all animal protein consumption in Indonesia came from fish and other kinds of seafood, making it a significant contributor to our national food security.



depleted fish stocks, damaged polluted environment, and poverty in coastal communities caused by weak law enforcement, monopoly,  as well as a lack of education, financial support, and technology. Blue Economy Indonesia, Blue economy beginner guide. CarbonEthics Indonesia

Despite such tremendous marine potentials, a sustainable Blue economy needs to deal with some existing problems, including depleted fish stocks, damaged polluted environment, and poverty in coastal communities caused by weak law enforcement, monopoly, as well as a lack of education, financial support, and technology, for it to thrive.



Blue Economy for Tourism & Transportation:

Marine transportation and trade in Indonesia. Blue Economy Indonesia, Blue economy beginner guide. CarbonEthics Indonesia

Around 80% of global trade by volume is carried by sea. Maritime transport creates many job opportunities and economic activities, such as international shipping, passenger ferries, port operations, etc. Efficient infrastructure, connectivity, and public regulations are important for the transport sector to grow sustainably.


Natural marine tourism. Blue Economy Indonesia, Blue economy beginner guide. CarbonEthics Indonesia

Some necessary steps to allow natural marine resources to recover from tourism environmental impacts include restricting the number of tourists, implementing strict fishing zone, and annual closing of national marine parks.




Blue Economy for Renewable Energy:

Blue economy for renewable energy. Blue Economy Indonesia, Blue economy beginner guide. CarbonEthics Indonesia

According to the Ministry for Maritime and Investment Affairs, the government of Indonesia will focus on developing the use of renewable energy, such as hydropower and solar power, as a part of the efforts to achieve a more sustainable Blue Economy.

The onset of the Covid-19 pandemic this year has negatively impacted the livelihoods of fishermen and coastal communities who play an important part in supporting Blue Economy. CarbonEthics is trying to provide financially support by partnering with them to plant Blue Carbon Package (seagrass, seaweed, mangroves) and baby corals from your purchase and donation.

Join us to help them from home! Click here to participate now

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